Sending Unannounced Live Insect Shipments Is a Really Bad Idea

A vast majority of logistics companies do not accept live insects on board. The reason is that even though insects have very different requirements than e.g mammals during transportation, they fall under the same category of “live animals”. Live animals mean extra work, extra cost and especially extra risk and for these reasons the logistics companies have chosen this policy.

In Europe, live animals are declined by at least the following major companies: TNT, FedEx, UPS, DHL, Schenker. Some companies have exceptions if transportation happens within a country or if airplanes are not used. For example, Matkahuolto company in Finland allows ground transportation, but only within the country. What is interesting is that FedEx is doing live insect transportation within different states in the USA, but not in the EU.

So if the policies are so strict, how come companies are able to send live insects internationally?

First of all the large global companies do not have a consistent approach to the relatively new demand. This we can see from the example of FedEx and their differences in EU and USA. When the logistics companies do not have a clear answer, it is possible for some departments or local offices to go around the official policies.

The second reason and the most common way to send live insects is to send them unannounced meaning that the insects are packed and sent without telling what is actually inside the box. The Finnish national post office Posti has told that they know that their network is used for live insect transportation this way. Using this method is a really bad idea in the long run and will lead to big problems sooner or later. In some cases sending unannounced might be the only option to be able to send at all, but the following points should make you consider the option of not sending at all seriously:

When sending purposely against the regulations you might be eligible to cover damages. This is the case if the logistics company notices your violation of the rules and must carry out quarantine actions to isolate the risky shipment from other packages.  The second and a lot more serious and expensive case is the breaking of a live insect box during transportation. Depending on the case it might be that the logistics company has to decontaminate multiple shelves, or even complete airport hangar, dispose of other packages that are affected by the escaped insects and so on. And if this happens you can be sure that they are not willing to pay the bill themselves.

There is no legal or regulatory cover. This goes to both receiver and sender! When something goes wrong with a shipment, and eventually something will go wrong, the logistics company will not cover anything to you once it is clear what was inside the package. If you are using the method of unannounced shipments, is it clear what will you do with you if a shipment doesn’t arrive because of the third party?

So what to do? If you are a supplier you should cover yourself by selling your live insect with the Incoterm Ex Works. This means that you are selling them “free from the warehouse” so that products are available from a given location where the customer or a third party assigned by the customer can pick them up. At the moment of picking up the responsibility of the supplier ends and all possible issues are now in the hands of the customer.

The best option is obviously using a logistics service provider that officially transports live insects. There are now a few options available also in the EU. If you are interested to get connected I am happy to help you out!

e-mail me itaponen(at)gmail.com or call +358 40 762 9601

Insect Farming Is Best Suited for the Production of Animal Feed

The companies of the growing industry of high-scale insect farming are approaching their businesses from many different angles, but where the use of insects can be justified the best is when the insects are used to create animal based feed for other animals. The “animal based feed” means feed that include proteins and other nutrients that are coming from an animal instead of plants. Certain farmed animals like salmon and pets like some reptiles require animal based feeds for their health and efficient farming.

When evaluating where the insect based products should be used, the animal based feed is the only group of products where the insects stand out in a positive way against the substitute products. Other products that can be made out of insect are human food, chitin and fertilizer. Chitin and fertilizer are side products of the main purpose of the insect farming that is aiming to produce food either for human or animal consumption.

Let’s go through some of the approaches the insect farming industry has made so far, and how they match up with the substitute products.

Human food

When talking about human food, insects are associated to it as a protein source and replacement for other animal products and beans like soy. There is no doubt that insect farming have significant benefits over these two product groups, but when looking at other new protein products, insects are not anymore the number one choice. Single-cell proteins (Algae, fungus and bacteria), cultured meat and bio engineering (e.g plant based products mimicking animal based products) can all offer the same value proposition as insects, but they do not carry similar risk exposure for the producers making them. For this reason the substitute products are more likely to be produced with more efficiency.

The main difference and in the same time the source of higher risks compared to these other modern food sources is that the insects are the only animal based, or putting it more precisely, the only one coming from live animals.  When farming animals in high-scale the pathogens are a risk for the health of the animals themselves. This risk is underlined in the coming years as the pathogens’ are building bit by bit more resistance against antibiotics. Secondly, when dealing with live animals the end products are also exposed to pathogens like salmonella more than plant based products.

The factor that insect industry has over the substitutes is the possibility of nutrient recycling. Nutrient recycling in this case means that nutrients can be saved from bio waste or even manure by feeding them to insects. Using bio waste brings multiple benefits for an insect farm, but it also highlights the risks. When the raw material of the production is bio waste the cost is very low. This lower cost can make up some of costs of higher risks when comparing the substitutes and underline positive environmental impact of the insect farming.

There are a few negative sides of using bio waste. Depending on the source of the waste the quality and quantity of it changes and this makes the forecasting of the production more difficult also in both quality and quantity. Additionally, when the waste is so unstable it bring additional pathogen risks. There are ways to mitigate these issues: If using waste from bio waste created by facilities such as breweries the quality and quantity are consistent, but the price is not as good as the same waste can be used for example in bio gas production. Other way to make the raw material consistent is for example fermentation and mixing of different high standard deviation batches to make them consistent by quality, but these solutions increase the production and inventory carrying costs. Lastly, the issue of regulations might be a problem from companies using bio waste. At the moment it is unknown how for example heavy metals and medication residues build-up in the food chain of insects. This is one of the main reasons why EU has not yet opened the markets for insect based food and feed. It has been speculated that the first steps of the opening of the markets will include only certain insect species fed only with certain feeds, and those fees would not include bio waste.

All these downsides may compromise one of the main arguments of insect farming, the possibility of nutrient recycling. If you are interested to read more about this aspect, see my blog post “Using bio waste as feed” here: https://ilkkataponen.com/2015/08/20/using-bio-waste-as-feed-for-farmed-insects/

Animal feed

When looking at the substitutes in the animal feed sector “insect feed” is competing with wild fish, side streams of traditional farming and plant based proteins like soy. The prices of these products are low and the quantity demand is extremely high. It will be difficult from the insect businesses to answer these numbers especially when the industry is still building up, but insect feed have other significant benefits over the competition.  Both wild fish and insects are part of the natural diet of predatory fishes like salmon, but unlike the wild fish, insects can be produced locally and insect products are a lot more sustainable. Soy is one of the key elements in the modern fish farming even though it is not a part of for example salmon’s diet. This area is not my expertise, but it is my understanding that soy is being used as fish feed only because it is the cheapest possible protein source, and if the price of an animal based protein source would be close soy, soy would be ditched right away. Additionally, the rise of the wild fish based fish feed prices is expected to continue. This will be closing the price cap year after year in benefit of the insect feed.

Conclusion

Keeping in mind the explained issues and when thinking about the industrial scale food production it can be concluded that insect are most suitable for animal feed for situations when the animal based nutrients are a must. When thinking of human food the new and modern substitute products offer more efficient and, depending on the type of the feed used for insects, more environmentally friendly solutions. When looking at the topic from non-industrial point of view insects are a great solution for human food. For developing countries and areas where arable land is scarce insects can offer great benefits over mammal farming that need huge areas of land and water. Topic that was not discussed in the blog was taste; will it work in benefit of insect or other protein sources? This question I leave for other bloggers and experts.

Insect Farmers Are Ignoring Health Hazards

Insect are closely related to crustaceans. Multiple entomology companies are acknowledging this by warning their customers about the possibility of allergic reaction when consuming insect products especially on people who are allergic to crustaceans e.g shrimps. The companies apply the warnings to their customers, but it seems they do not act on the same basis when it comes to the protection of their employees.

There no public releases or instructions on how the employees should be protected in the entomology industry. While such white papers are still missing, guidelines can be looked for from the seafood industry. The Canadian government gives instructions for fish handling:

“Employees shall wear protective clothing such as coveralls, aprons, sleeves, smocks, hand coverings, hair nets or beard nets that are in a clean and sound condition and suitable for the tasks employees are charged to perform.”

The complete instruction can be found here: http://www.inspection.gc.ca/food/fish-and-seafood/quality-management-program/compliance-and-assessment-guide/eng/1373905757114/1373905892989?chap=5#s29c5

Behind the following link you find an article about a Shrimp factory. The article includes pictures of the factory and its employees in full protective gear. http://pulitzercenter.org/reporting/thailand-thai-shrimp-industry-labor-abuse-child-migrant-burma-burmese-workers

It is surprising how lightly the entomology companies seem to the health hazards and the low level of protection offered to insect farm employees against the allergens. When you are unsure about the possible risks, you should be rather safe than sorry, right? Ignoring the risks can lead break out of allergies making the employees in the worst case unable to work at the facility. Additionally, the protective gear is not only for the safety of the employees, but also for the protection of the insects from pathogen sources and unwanted insect species.

At first I was thinking of showing here examples of companies, but I think it would be unfair just to name a few companies as “bad examples”. These examples are easy to find, just go ahead and search for pictures and videos posted by the companies themselves and you can see inside the facilities and how the employees and visitors are equipped.

What the Latest Avian Flu Epidemic Teaches to Insect Farmers?

In the first half of 2015 the egg production industry in USA has been hit hard with avian flu epidemic causing the staggering loss of 11 percent of the hen population all across the country. In actual number of egg-laying hens reduced just between April and June by 33 million individuals. Read these articles for more details:

(http://america.aljazeera.com/opinions/2015/7/the-end-of-chicken.html?utm_content=buffer14455&utm_medium=social&utm_source=twitter.com&utm_campaign=buffer)

http://thefern.org/blog_posts/11-percent-of-egg-laying-hens-dead-in-two-months-from-bird-flu/

kirva
So what can the insect farming industry conclude from this example of significant pathogen issues this established and large industry is struggling with? When such a large industry with long history of scientific research and large funding (compared to insect farming) behind it cannot control its pathogen risks, it is clear that insect farming is exposed to even higher probability of risk pathogen risk realization.

Starting from the first posts I have been writing about the seriousness of the pathogen breakout risk. It is also my main conclusion of my thesis that this risk is the most serious one for all insect farming companies. Here are a few selected sections from my thesis about the topic. If you read the thesis already, you can jump ahead until the cricket drawing! If you are reading this for the first time and you are interested to learn more, find the link to my complete thesis in the end of this post .

pirkko
“The lack of knowledge increases all risks in every department and function of an IFF- farm, not only in the supply chain. As mentioned in chapter two by the time of writing this study there are no functional large-scale facilities operating yet, only plans exists. Even though the companies will do their best to predict upcoming challenges, it is likely that there will be surprises that the companies are not able to predict. There is not much scientific research on the industry so a lot of the data and knowledge companies have is gathered through their own research and development projects and based on the experiences of the individuals. As the data is private and essential for the company`s success the knowledge is carefully protected and out of reach of the public. As mentioned already in the opening chapter other than IFF- insect farming has related history, however the knowledge from the field of for example farming of entomophagous insects cannot be directly used to help the risk control in IFF- farming .This is be-cause the insect species feed on different nutrition and the scale is significantly bigger.”

aurinko
“Pathogens and parasites are the biggest concern for all entomology farms; they can wipe out entire facilities endangering the production output for a very long time. What makes the risk even more serious and the mitigation more difficult is that there is a very limited amount of knowledge available on the subject on commercial level farming. The insect pathogens include viruses, bacteria, fungi, protists and nematodes (Eilenberg et al.). An example of a problematic pathogen is densovirus that can cause serious dam-age to cricket farms that can wipe out entire colonies (Szelei et al., 2011). For control-ling the risk of contaminations by pathogens and parasites high hygienic conditions are required, similar to other food production (Klunder et al., 2012).”
“Pathogens and parasites cannot be controlled completely as they are in some cases originated from the insects themselves (Eilenberg, 2015). At times the pathogens will outbreak and cause problems for the production. An example of a minor case could be a loss of a few percentages of insects, or maybe only a slowed down growth rate. In the worst case scenario the whole colony dies. Losing a colony can be a catastrophe for an insect farm because risk residence resilience level is low due to the lack of egg supply in the market (chapter 4.3). “

“Pathogen and parasite outbreak can be considered as a hazard risk because of the lack of knowledge and low control level caused by it. The lack of knowledge leads to a situation where the companies do not have complete understanding of the dangers. What are the pathogens and parasites, where they can come into the process and what are the circumstances that favor the unwanted visitors? When the risks or their cause are not known, they cannot be mitigated. Other hazard risks are for example natural disasters as discussed in chapter 3.2.2. These risks cannot be controlled completely, but a company can be prepared for them.”

So what can the insect farms do that they could be better prepared and handle their risk than the struggling traditional farming? What is positive for insect farming is that unlike the traditional animal farming, the insect- industry is not tied to old fashioned infrastructure that does not support the modern risk management thinking and the growing insect industry can be build according to the latest knowledge.

ilkka-heinäsirkka
For long time the traditional farming has ignored the unethical and hazardous (and money making) living environments of the animals as they have been able to counter the downsides by heavy use of medication on the animals. As it has now been seen again with the latest case of the avian flu, it just might be so that this is not the right way to go. Fortunately, the insect farming industry does not even have this option simply because such thing as insect medication does not exists. For this reason the best option for insect farmers is to first of all provide the insect the best possible environment to lower the risk exposure of pathogen breakout. Secondly, use Risk Pooling meaning that the insect colonies are divided in the multiple separate locations so that in case the risk does occur, it does not affect the whole colony right away.

Further reading:
About risk management click here: https://ilkkataponen.com/2015/05/20/thesis-supply-chain-risk-management-in-entomology-farms/
About ethical insect farming click here: https://ilkkataponen.com/2015/01/04/the-animal-welfare-in-insect-farming/

5 Questions an Investor Should Ask Before Investing into an Insect Farm

Investing into the growing industry of high-scale insect farming that has undoubtedly high potential is a case of high risk / high reward. The high reward comes from the growing and unexploited markets and the high risk from the limited knowledge and the undeveloped market environment. Here in this blog I list some of the most important questions that investor should ask and that the farmer must have clear answers that are supported with solid arguments.

aurinko

In my perspective the one of the most important qualities for a high-scale insect farm is its flexibility. Because of all the uncertainty surrounding the industry the most important question is how the farm can adopt to changing legislation, trends and new scientific knowledge. All these factors increase the risk exposure of the insect farming companies. This main question is cut in to more detailed questions here below. The questions and the reasoning behind them are explained with higher detail in my thesis that can be found here: https://ilkkataponen.com/2015/05/20/thesis-supply-chain-risk-management-in-entomology-farms/

ilkka-heinäsirkka

1. What species are you farming?
2. How many species are you farming?
3. What type of feed are you using?

The question number one is very fundamental question and sets direction for the farming company. As concluded in my thesis the biggest risk threatening the companies is a pathogen break out. The risks are especially associated with insect farming because the pathogens are still very poorly known. For this reason insect farms should choose their species to be one of the ones that are best known, or they should have extraordinary knowledge or resources related to the scientific research with the selected species. In my thesis I name the three most common species farmed today. The species are Tenebrio molitor, Hermetia illucens and Acheta domesticus. If a farm has selected species that are not one of this three the species should at least be present in the “Belgium ten”, a list of ten approved species by the Belgium authorities  ( You can find the list here: http://www.afsca.be/foodstuffs/insects/).

Changing the insect species is not easy after building the infrastructure around the certain needs and choosing only one species is a risk for multiple reasons. The farm should be prepared for changing the primary species in order to avoid the following risks:

-It is possible that the selected species might not be in list of insects that are first allowed for use for human food and animal feed.

-If the species will not be one of most common ones to be used in the future the company will be left out from the growing knowledge of the most common species and from the growing logistics downstream.

-There is no knowledge of how any insect species will perform in very high volumes. It is possible that even the most promising species will turn up to be unsuitable for high-scale farming.

Same goes with the selected feed. Even if the selected species would be approved by legislation and the species would perform well in high-scale environment, it might be that the selected type of feed makes the end product remain banned. This type of situation might be ahead for example for the companies using biological waste.

4. Do you consider biological research important?
Companies are going to two different ways when it comes to biology research about the farmed species. Few bigger companies have multiple scientists with their teams working on building a better understanding on pathogens and what are the best and most efficient ways of farming. In the other end there are companies with no biological knowledge. It is essential to know the reasons behind the company’s selection between these two approaches. Is it so that the research is just waste of money, or so that the research will bring better quality, risk management and higher efficiency?

5. How have you prepared against pathogen breakouts?
There are multiple risks in insect farming, but the most dangerous one is a pathogen breakout. As mentioned before the knowledge about the insect pathogens is really basic and they pose risks that can in the worst case kill off entire colonies. According to Doctor Jorgen Eilenberg of University of Copenhagen, leading insect pathogens expect in the world, companies cannot with current knowledge prevent pathogens breakouts completely. It is undeniable scientific fact that the sufficient risk control against pathogen can only be reached by risk pooling and segregation of different functions.

If the farm uses same batch of feed for all of its insects, they are all located in a same space or if they use same AC- machinery the investor should be alarmed and ask how the farm can justify the ignorance towards the risk?
pirkko

Thesis: Supply Chain Risk Management in Entomology Farms

My thesis “Supply Chain Risk Management in Entomology Farms Case: High scale production of human food and animal feed” was published in May 2015. The link for the downloadable PDF- file is in the end of the text. The thesis is world’s first scientific study connecting business management and high-scale insect farming for human food and animal feed.  
pirkkoClick here for the downloadable file: ilkka-taponen-thesis

My presentation about the thesis can be found here

Audiobook version of the thesis is available for purchase in all major stores e.g here

Which insect species to farm for human food?

Welcome to my third blog post! So far I have got almost 300 different visitors to my site, thank you all for reading and spreading the word. To celebrate this milestone I have got myself a logo and name for the blog. Special thanks for logo for my friend Lasse Ursin, who also provides the cool graphics of this blog post.

Since starting the blog I have completed my internship at Ynsect in France and returned to my native Finland. I have some interesting insect-related projects coming up, but nothing official yet. My thesis work is also moving forward, I think I’m about in the half way now. The title keeps on changing, at the moment it is Risk Management in the Supply Chains of Human food and Animal feed Entomology Farms. One interesting topic I came across with when doing research on insect farming is the reasoning why certain insect are more suitable for farming than others. Here is what I found out.

Which insect species to farm for human food?

There are over six million insect species in the world and over 1000 are used as a food source for humans. There is so much to choose from, so how to find the best options? There are many ways to approach the question, but for this blog I have chosen to take the businessman view and see which species can be farmed effectively and in large scale.

First of all the chosen insect must be phytophagous, meaning that they feed on plant-based food. Entomophagous insects, meaning that they are feeding on other insects, are very hard to farm and make a profit in the same time. This is because even though there have been many attempts, entomophagous insects have not been successfully farmed on factitious prey meaning that to farm them, also the prey insect must be farmed. This leads to a situation where two insects are farmed, but only one can be sold.

lehtikirvapirkko

The second step in the cutting out the options is answering a set of questions. Some of these questions are given in the book Mass Rearing of Beneficial Organisms.

Body size: The insect should have reasonably large body size because the insects that are sold for human food or animal feed are sold in weight (sometimes entomophagous insects that are reared for pest control are sold in numbers). The larger the size the easier they are to control during the rearing process.

Easy to culture: This is something quite obvious, but what makes a species easy to culture? The main reasons making culturing easy are: Available studies on the insect, availability of the insect itself, simple living environment, simple eating habits and low level of manual work on the upkeep of the farms living conditions.

High rate of reproduction: This is one of most important questions and related to the body size point. There is no use of having a species that are large in size if they are very slow breeders. High rate of reproduction gives also security against unexpected rise in mortality rates as the population can regain the required level fast. Also answering to rising market demand is easier.

Not significantly cannibalistic and high tolerance for diseases: Even though the insects must be given an environment that resembles their natural environment, they most likely will be living in more dense populations than in nature. Some insects will react to high density populations by starting to eat each other. This will cause losses to the farmer and fights against the animal welfare (see blog no 1). The dense populations increases also the risk of diseases and for this reason high tolerance is necessary.

Feed conversion ratio and feed: The feed conversion ratio tells how much of feed is needed to gain certain amount of biomass. The lower the ratio is the less feed needs to bought and stored. Unlike the farmed mammals, insects are poikilothermic that means that they are able to use most of their energy for growing, not for heating the body. This gives insects better FCR than cows and pork for example. There are variations between the insects as well, but the FCR of a certain insect depends on what the feed actually is. If the food has high nutrient values, a small amount is enough.

This brings us the last point of possibility to feed on organic waste streams. If the species can be fed on organic waste the cost of production will be reduced, but it brings up multiple questions. Is the waste high and consistent in nutrient values and is it risk free? If the consistency is not guaranteed, the already difficult production planning becomes more complicated because the consumption of feed cannot be forecasted. Already today a lot of waste streams are used in beneficial way, for example for the production of biofuel. How nutritious the waste that is available for free or very cheap actually is when major part of the “good” waste is already used somewhere else? There are few companies doing production on waste streams, would be interesting to hear what they have to say about this!

Few insects that fit the given criteria are house fly, coldling moth, silkworm, mealworm, black soldier fly and house cricket.

Insects and sustainability are not crap.

In my first blog, “Animal welfare in insect farms”, I discussed why insect farming is more sustainable than livestock farming. On 17th of January 2015 an article “Are those edible bugs actually sustainable?” was released on MacLean’s website. In the article, Ben Reade is questioning the sustainability of insect farming, but he is doing it by making statements with no real arguments and cutting corners. The first quote from him in the article is: “Everyone has been making a lot of hype about insects and sustainability and most of that hype is crap.”  Admittedly, the tone of this article is most likely deliberately provocative, maybe to make people like me write about the same subject!  Later on, a chef called Nathan Isberg is also interviewed, but first let’s start by breaking down some of the misconceptions from the article given by Mr Reade:

..“No one spoke about the fact that, in order to ship those insects around the world, they were mostly being bred in Holland and had to be kept at 28° C—and that’s energy-intensive,” says Reade. “And then they were to be freeze-dried, which is just about the most energy-intensive form of preservation on the planet.”

  1. Obviously, when the demand for insect products grows, the insect will be industrially farmed all around the world, not only in Holland where the industry at the moment is booming the most. When looking at the production and logistics of insects, it is relevant to compare it to the substitute. For example, what is the difference in the sustainability of logistics of freeze-dried crickets going from Holland to Brazil compared to Brazilian beef and soya beans coming to Europe? The logistics have very little impact on the total environmental footprint of food; over 90 % comes from the manufacturing.
  1. There are three popular insects farmed at industrial level at the moment. From the three, only the house cricket is associated with high energy consumption related to the heating of its environment. The other two, namely the black soldier fly and mealworm, are farmed in large crowds and as such are heating their environment themselves.
  1. Freeze-drying is associated only with the house cricket, and only if the insects are shipped to customers without processing as a whole. There are already products like protein bars, as mentioned in the article, that are made out of insect flour. The flour is shipped dry and at room temperature. The freeze-drying will not be the most common form of insect product handling. Again, compared to livestock products, the majority of meat products must be moved and stored in cool temperature.

Nathan Isberg, a chef, is also interviewed in the article. He says, among other things:

“Insects are less and less a realistic response to our current agriculture. Reducing protein consumption would be a better answer”

This is a true statement, but the problem here is that the demand of protein is expected to grow, not reduce. The growth is driven by the growing middle class of big countries like China and India. From my perspective there is very little that can be done to change people’s desire for proteins, so the answer is not to hope for and promote less protein consumption, but to provide a new protein source; the insects.

“These crickets you get from farms—they taste like fish because they’re being fed fish food. So you get a cricket, you feed it fish, and you feed the cricket to the fish and you get a fish. That’s the reality.”

Well no, that is not the reality. First of all, crickets are not fed to fish. If a fish farm is using some insects for feed it is the larvae of black soldier fly, not the cricket.  Feeding fish based products to crickets is expensive and cannot be done on a large scale and expected to be profitable. There are multiple better ways of feeding crickets than with fish meal.

Ps. If Mr Isberg’s last comment is really true and there is an insect farm feeding crickets fish meal and a fish farm feeding crickets to fish, please, farmers – do yourselves a favour and contact me! I can give somefree tips to save you a lot of time and money. Or maybe just read a book, like Mass Production of Beneficial Organisms.

Links to the article  “Are those edible bugs actually sustainable?”:

http://www.macleans.ca/society/life/factory-farmed-insect-how-vulgar/

Animal Welfare in Insect Farming

Large-scale industrial insect farming is a relatively new industry and is expected to grow significantly in the coming years. There are a few industrial size insect farms starting around the world that are rearing insects, mainly for fish feed, but some products are also popping up little by little for human consumption as well. The human consumption of insects is called entomophagy, not to be confused with entomology, the branch of zoology concerned with the study of insects. There are over 1000 different insects species used today as food, but the most common insects being farmed on an industrial scale are the mealworm (Tenebrio molitor), black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) and house cricket (Acheta domesticus). Insects are seen as a sustainable substitute, especially for the consumption of livestock. The traditional protein source livestock is not only expensive, but also environmentally unsustainable – compared to an insect or vegetarian diet, meat production is ineffective and uses staggering amounts of water, land and feed. For example, a cow consumes 12 times more resources than crickets that give the comparable nutrition as meat.

To read more about the topic, have a look at FAO’s Edible Insect document available here.

Along with the environmental issues, another ethical concern associated with meat consumption is the main topic of this blog: animal welfare. The basis of animal welfare legislation is the so-called Brambell’s five freedoms model.

The five freedoms are:

  1. Freedom from hunger and thirst
  2. Freedom from discomfort
  3. Freedom from pain, injury and disease.
  4. Freedom to express normal behavior.
  5. Freedom from fear and distress.

The basic cause for ethical problems in traditional animal farming is that it is economically beneficial to keep the animals in environments that are not natural for them. For example the unnatural, stressful environment and unnatural density of animals can lead to health issues, but economically it’s cheaper to deal with it by extensive medication than by providing more space.

As it stands today, when high-scale insect farms are emerging, it is economically beneficial for insect farms to respect the five freedoms. According to multiple industrial scale farmers interviewed in the research document “A Bug’s Life. Large-scale insect rearing in relation to animal welfare”, the more the industrial environment resembles the natural environment of the insect, the more productive and healthy the insect will be. There are a few exceptions, however. Some farmers use juvenile hormone to prevent the larvae of Tenebrio molitor from moulting into pupae and later into beetles. Another example is gender ratio manipulation. In order to maximize the breeding activities of the adult insect, the natural ratio of male and female insects is modified. These are two instances where the animals’ right to express their normal behaviour is interfered with. To read more about this topic, you can find the full “A Bug’s Life”-document is available here: http://venik.nl/site/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/Rapport-Large-scale-insect-rearing-in-relation-to-animal-welfare.pdf

Hypocritical approach on animal rights.

People tend to be hypocritical about animal rights. For example, domestic animals are loved by their owners and a lot of time and effort is put into their wellbeing, because they are considered ‘cute’ and can show affection. Animals like rats do not receive the same degree of compassion, let alone cockroaches or spiders. This fact will affect the public’s view on the growing industry significantly. Even if in the future insect farms would not be able to provide an ethical environment for the insects, the public would not be as concerned with defending, for example, fly larvae in the same way that it is increasingly doing with livestock. Insect farming hasn’t yet reached a scale comparable to livestock farming at this point. It remains to be seen if farms will be able to provide the animals with the five freedoms and how the public will perceive the industry when it grows bigger.

For the last point some food for thought.

The big moral question that the consumer is facing when it comes to entomophagy is: is it morally correct to eat insects and other animals? And if not, can the immorality of eating insects be overlooked for the sake of the greater good?

If carefully controlled, insects can be fed with biological waste streams. This would make insect products clearly the most environmentally sustainable protein source, not only over livestock and fish but also over soya beans. If the carbon footprint of the end product does not count in the production of the insects’ feed (as it is otherwise considered waste), the only environmental impact comes from electricity usage on the farm, packing and transportation. When looking at the issues associated with soya bean farming, not even a full vegan diet gets away with a clear environmental conscience. For this reason, even a consumer who is conscious of the animal rights of insects must consider entomophagy over vegetable based proteins for an even lower environmental impact.

My blog is clearly pro-entomophagy, but an opposite view exists as well. Here is a link to a blog where the author speaks against insect farming for ethical reasons. The author makes some relevant and respectable points from his ethical point of view, but is guilty of fallacy when referring to “A Bug’s Life” and high mortality rates. Specifically, when the author writes “…in practice, farms don’t want to spend too much effort on maintenance or optimal welfare”, this conclusion has already been overruled by researchers of the “A Bug’s Life” document. According to their knowledge and the multiple farmers they interviewed, it is essential for the success of the farm to put a lot of effort into the maintenance and optimization of the insects’ welfare.

I hope you found my first ever blog interesting to read! As you may have noticed I’ve left out multiple references to make the text easier to read, also for people who are not interested in the topic for purely professional or research reasons. In case you would like to know more, leave a comment. I’ll do my best to answer all the questions!

In Paris 4th January 2015. Ilkka Taponen

Updated 2017- version can be found from my Medium-site.

Further reading:

For general information on insect farming: FAO’s Edible insects.

Study on animal welfare in industrial farming: “A Bug’s Life. Large-scale insect rearing in relation to animal welfare”

About the environmental impacts when using insects of a part of fish feed: Life Cycle Assessment on Icelandic Arctic char fed with three different feed types.